Sweat Lodges and Solidarity: The Archaeology of the Hubbert Site

Ontario Archaeology, No. 71, 1995
Robert I. MacDonald and Ronald F. Williamson

In 1990, ASI undertook salvage excavations at the Hubbert site, a mid- to late-fifteenth century Late Woodland period settlement located on the eastern margin of the Innisfil upland overlooking the broad valley of Lovers Creek. In the course of excavating 3,260 square metres of this one hectare settlement, two longhouses were completely exposed, while the end of a third house was documented as well. The most conspicuous features associated with the houses were their 17 semi-subterranean sweat lodges. This paper summarizes the findings of the excavations with respect to the settlement patterns, the various aspects of the material culture and subsistence practices of the site’s occupants, and concludes with a summary and interpretation of these data.

Additional Documents

Click below to view “Sweat Lodges and Solidarity: The Archaeology of the Hubbert Site” as a PDF: