As the Creek Flows: Spatial and Chronological Distribution of Indigenous Artifacts along Seneca Creek, Caledonia, Ontario

The Archaeological Institute of America Annual Meeting, 2021
Stuart Karrow, Robb Bhardwaj, and Alec McLellan

The Seneca Creek property located in Caledonia, Ontario contains a large number of archaeological sites that span a broad temporal continuum from the Late Paleo-Indian Period (ca. 10,000 B.P.) to the Late Woodland Period (400 B.P.). Proposed development in the region has allowed Archaeological Services Inc. (ASI) to document several Indigenous lithic sites in the area. In this paper, we map the results of the Stage 2 archaeological assessments conducted by ASI in 2016 and spatially analyze the distribution of artifacts, material types, and occupation patterns throughout time.  Seasonal water-flow, which contributed to low-land flooding, attracted groups to locations where hunting, fishing and foraging activities could be exploited. Here, we explore these relationships and propose theories for the prolific occupational history along the creek during the last 9,000 years.