What is archaeology? This may seem like a straightforward question, but you would be surprised with the answers that Canadians give to this question. In the early 2000s, the University of British Columbia and Department of Canadian Heritage carried out a public survey in collaboration with Ipsos Reid on Canadians’ perception, knowledge and attitudes toward archaeological heritage. They surveyed a random group of more than 1,500 people across Canada, including 540 respondents from Ontario. The results of this research were surprising, to say the least.